Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 949 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Cosmetic Surgery Essay Did you like this example? The Effect of Cosmetic Surgery Reality TV Show on Adolescent GirlÃ¢â¬â¢s Body Image The article analyzed in this essay is The Effect of Cosmetic Surgery Reality TV Show on Adolescent GirlÃ¢â¬â¢s Body Image by Ashikali, Dittmar, and Ayers. The researchers focused on assessing the impact of reality TV shows on the perception of an adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s body image. Four hypotheses guided the study. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Effect of Cosmetic Surgery On Adolescents" essay for you Create order Firstly, the researchers expected that girls who watch cosmetic surgery programs portrayed body dissatisfaction as compared to those who controlled viewing habits. Secondly, the scholars presumed that girls who watched the television shows could report a positive attitude towards cosmetic surgery.Ã Thirdly, the researchers predicted that girls exposed to the fairs but were aware of the risks had a negative perception of cosmetic surgery. The independent variables for the study were reality television programs, scales body image, and attitudes. Alternatively, the dependent variable for the research was adolescent girlÃ¢â¬â¢s body image. The sample of the study consisted of female students selected between the ages of 11 to 18 years. In the first group, the researchers chose 89 girls from six institutions in a Psychology Conference. The scholars recruited ten girls who had the ages of 15 to 18 years. Out of the sample population, 35 were aware of the risks of cosmetic surgery, but 31 girls did not identify the consequences. However, 33 girls controlled their watching behavior of cosmetic surgery programs. The participants were from the White and Asian origin. Ã The researchers used the experimental and control methods to assess the effect of the reality television programs on the adolescent girlÃ¢â¬â¢s body image. Ashikali, Dittmar, and Ayers used 15-minutes-clips to assess the consequence of the film on the behavior of the participants. Subsequently, the scholars used the Self-Discrepancy Index to assess the effect of scales of body images on the attitude of the participants. Also, the writers used the Likert Scale to rate the magnitude and salience of the participant in completing sentences. The researchers used statistical approaches such as skewness and regression to assess self-discrepancies. The writers used the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale to assess the advantages of cosmetic surgery to the image. The ACSS instrument was also used to examine the magnitude of participants accepting cosmetic surgery. Further, the scholars applied the 6-point Likert scale to determine the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions. Regression methods were used in assessing the research hypotheses. The scholars applied the binary logistic regression method in testing the impact of girls watching reality programs on the body image. The method was also used to test the effect of girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ exposure to cosmetic surgery perceptions. The technique was useful in assessing the hypotheses where the researchers derived results. Ã The results indicated that there were no group differences among the variables. Therefore, the variables were not controlled using subsequent analysis. The researchers observed group differences in the weight and appearance of girls. Girls who watched cosmetic reality shows were unsatisfied about their weight and appearance. The study revealed that girls who were aware of the risks and watched the cosmetic reality programs portrayed higher dissatisfaction as compared to those with little knowledge about the consequences. The researchers discovered that girls who were exposed to programs that did not illustrate the risks of cosmetic surgery were materialistic. The results indicated that there were no significant impacts of watching cosmetic shows on the attitudes of girls. Thus, perceptions towards cosmetic surgery are not affected by exposure of cosmetic films. The scholars could not determine the impacts because the data was inadequate for statistical analysis. The results indic ated that there is a significant difference between the high and low appearance of girls on their self-esteem. The researchers recommend that a larger sample of cosmetic reality programs is needed to determine the effect on the viewersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes. There is a need for further analysis of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude on risks after exposure to various cosmetic films. Future analysts should ensure that the audience understands the kind of information in the study to enhance the accuracy and reality of the risk of cosmetic surgery. Researchers should consider the effects of media on the assumptions on cosmetic surgery. Scholars can assess the consequences using actual participants or hypothetical cases. Additionally, there is a need for extensive analysis on the subject of cosmetic surgery films and the examination of individual differences to identify the reactions of each participant. As a result, the researchers can determine the audience that is vulnerable to cosmetic surgery videos. Ã The research design applied in the study was inappropriate. The researchers presented their work in a clear and concise which enhances the understanding of the reader. However, the writers have not explores the cause of watching films and the recommendations. The scholars could have applied the descriptive research design to provide more profound insights into the topic. I would consider answering the following questions in my future research to improve the results of the topic: What prompts girls to watch cosmetic surgery films? What are the specific aspects of cosmetic shows that influence the thoughts of the girls on body weight or surgery? What are recommendations for the effects on cosmetic surgery movies on body image? I can make observations or conduct interviews on focus groups after establishing the main questions. Observation can assist in collecting information on the causes and responses of participants towards the shows. Besides, I can communicate to the participants through electronic means such as e-mails to identify their reactions on the different kinds of cosmetic films.Ã References Ashikali, E. M., Dittmar, H., Ayers, S. (2014). The effect of cosmetic surgery reality TV shows on adolescent girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ body image. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3(3), 141. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2014-08110-001.html
Monday, May 18, 2020
Christianity is the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Most followers of Christianity, called Christians, are members of one of three major groups--Roman Catholic, Protestant, or Eastern Orthodox. These groups have different beliefs about Jesus and His teachings. But all consider Jesus central to their religion. Most Christians believe God sent Jesus into the world as the Savior. Christianity teaches that humanity can achieve salvation through Jesus. Jesus lived in Judea (later called Palestine), a Middle Eastern land ruled by the Romans. The Romans crucified Jesus about A.D. 30. Jesus followers were convinced that He rose from the dead, and they soon spread Christianity to major cities throughout theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Two practices important to Christian worship usually take place in churches. These practices are (1) baptism and (2) the Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or the Lords Supper. The ceremony of baptism celebrates an individuals entrance into Christianity. The Eucharist represents the Last Supper, the final meal that Jesus shared with His disciples. Worshipers share bread and wine in the Eucharist as a sign of their unity with each other and with Jesus. Christians see Jesus as continuous with the God of Judaism. A collection of Christian writings was added to the Jewish scriptures known as the Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible. The Christian writings, called the New Testament, record the life and teachings of Jesus. They also describe the development of the early church and explain what faith in Jesus means. The Christian Bible includes both the Old and New Testaments. Some Christian groups also accept as part of the Bible a collection of writings called the Apocrypha. The origin of Christianity Jesus ministry. Christianity originated in the ministry of Jesus. During His lifetime, Jesus preached the gospel, meaning good news, that God was coming to earth to be among His people in a special way. Jesus called this special way the Kingdom of God. He warned His listeners to repent their sinful ways to be ready for the approaching Kingdom of God. In urgingShow MoreRelatedThe And Christianity Of Christianity1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCourage and Christianity Christianity is one of the worlds most recognizable religions today. With every major religion, a struggle has to be overcome in order to be successful. Over a period of hundreds of years, Christianity spread through the Roman empire. The spreading of Christianity was not an easy task but a terrifying task that took the brave to conquer. Although several powerful rulers were important in spreading Christianity in Ancient Rome, it would not have taken root if not for itsRead MoreChristianity : Christianity And Christianity1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChristianity Christianity? What is it, you ask. Well, Christianity is the belief that God is our one true God, that he made our world with his bare hands and His Son is Jesus Christ. God made man and animal, light and dark, water and land. We believe that God gave his only Son to save our world from sin.. Origins of Christianity Christianity originated in the city of Jerusalem in present-day Israel. The founder of Christianity, Jesus Christ, was born in the small town of Bethlehem, just a fewRead MoreChristianity And Christianity Of Christianity892 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBeing some of the biggest religions in the world today, Christianity and Catholicism are considered to be symbols of stability, comfort, and security because of its strong faith. This, however, has not always been true. Over the course of hundreds of thousands of years, Christianity and Catholicism have gone through tremendous changes through different major events in history. Ranging from the Council of NicaeaÃ¢â¬âthe early church community prior to 1054Ã¢â¬âto the Spanish Colonization of the New WorldÃ¢â¬âpriorRead MoreJudaism : Christianity And Christianity1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJudaism and Christianity are two of the oldest religions known to man, with both developing out of the country if Israel. One of the biggest differ ences between the two religions is who Christ was, and his purpose in life. However, they share common ground when it comes to their belief in God and his teachings. In fact, Christianity would not exist without Judaism, as it the foundation that Christianity is based on. Judaism is the first and oldest religion, and because of this Judaism has a directRead MoreChristianity And The Rise Of Christianity Essay1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Christianity in the 21st century is the largest religion in the world and has over two billion followers. Christians classify themselves under 34,000 different denominations. This popular religion is all about the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. When a religion is born so is a holy book to remember it by. The bible is considered the word of God and is known for its infamous stories and sayings. The Bible contains rules and righteous acts to live by. Many question as to how ChristianityRead MoreChristianity ( Religion ) On Christianity1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCHRISTIANITY (RELIGION) Christianity essentially focuses on faith as it foundation. There are over one thousand religious establishments in the U.S. and Canada and that is just focusing on Christianity on its own. There are 19 major world religions which are sectioned into a total of 270 large religious groups and there is also many smaller ones. They all hold various and often differing beliefs concerning divinity, humanity and the rest of the universe. Many consider that their own faith is theRead MoreChristianity And The Rise Of Christianity1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChristianity is the historical religion stemming from the teachings of Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Ã¢â¬Å"Of all the great religions Christianity is the most widespread and has the largest number of adherents.Ã¢â¬ It is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest and most influential religion in history. Christianity can be found on every corner of the globe with nearly two billion followers at the beginning of the 21st century. It is the predomi nant religion in Europe, the Americas, and Southern Africa. This religion basedRead MoreChristianity : The Rise Of Christianity1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBefore the rise of Christianity as a major religion in the European area, Paganism was a belief that was common among all people across Europe. Paganism involved polytheistic beliefs with ritualistic tradition and animal sacrifice. This belief was common in the Anglo-Saxon tradition, which is from where the epic poem Beowulf is thought to have originated circa 550 AD. Due to the origins of Beowulf being surrounded by Pagan tradition and culture and reliance on the method of oral recitation of theRead MoreThe Origins Of Christianity And Christianity1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Christianity is one of the most common religions of the world and was founded in the early stages of time as we know it. Christianity was formed by the power of one man, Jesus Christ, whose life was unexplainably different from anyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s of his time. The influences of his character, beliefs, customs, and teachings, are the foundation of the religion today. Throughout time and as more knowledge was gained and received, the customs of the religion changed and new smaller groups broke freeRead MoreRise Of Christianity : Christianity1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRise of Christianity Essay Christianity is one of the largest religions in the world. With 2.2 billion adherents, it ranks above Islam, Atheists, and Hinduism. So why is this religion so well known? How did it get where it is today? Where did it start? It started with Jesus of Nazareth who was born in Bethlehem, the Messiah to the Jewish people, and crucified by the Romans. His life, works, death, and resurrection is what started Christianity. But that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the end of it. Christians would face
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Physics assignment :: XI 1. A vertical U tube of uniform cross section contains mercury in both of its arms. A glycerine (d = 1.3 g/cm3) column of length 10cm is introduced into one of the arms. Oil of density 0.8g/cm3 is poured in the other arm until the upper surfaces of the oil and glycerine are in the same horizontal level. Find the length of oil column. Density of mercury is 13.6 g/cm3. (9.6cm) 2. Two communicating cylindrical tubes contain mercury. The diameter of one vessel is four times larger than the diameter of the other. A column of water of height 70cm is poured into the narrow vessel. How much will the mercury level rise in the other vessel and how much will it sink in the narrow one? How much will theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦a) 2.2 g b) 4.4 g c) 1.1 g d) 3.6 g 15. A large wooden piece in the form of a cylinder floats on water with two-thirds of its length immersed. When a man stands on its upper surface, a further one-sixth of its length is immersed. The ratio of the masses of the man and the wooden piece is a) 1 : 2 b) 1 : 3 c) 1 : 4 d) 1 : 5 16. An ice cube is floating in water above which a layer of a lighter oil is poured. As the ice melts completely, the level of interface and upper of layer of oil surface a) rise and fall b) fail and rise c) not change and not change d) not change and fall 17. The spring balance A reads 2 kg with a block suspended from it. A balance B reads 5 kg when a beaker with liquid is put on the pan of the balance. The two balances are now so arranged that the hanging mass is inside the liquid in the beaker as shown in the figure. In this situation, a) the balance A will read more than 2 kg b) the balance B will read more than 5 kg c) the balance A will read less than 2 kg and B will read more than 5 kg d) the balances A and B will read 2 kg and 5 kg respectively 18. Equal volumes of liquid are poured in the three vessels A, B and C (h1 h2 h3). All the vessels have same base area. Select the correct alternatives. [pic] a) The force on the base will be maximum in vessel A. b) The force on the base will be maximum in vessel C. c) Net force exerted by the liquid in all theShow MoreRelatedResearch Methodology16940 Words Ã |Ã 68 PagesRESEARCH METHODOLOGY S. Rajasekar School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli Ã¢â¬â 620 024, Tamilnadu, IndiaÃ¢Ëâ" P. Philominathan Department of Physics, Sri AVVM Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur Ã¢â¬â 613 503, Tamilnadu, India V. Chinnathambi Department of Physics, AKGS Arts College, Srivaikundam Ã¢â¬â 628 619, Tamilnadu, India In this manuscript various components of research are listed and brieÃ¯ ¬ây discussed. The topics considered in this write-up cover a part of the research methodology paperRead MoreQuality Improvement328284 Words Ã |Ã 1314 PagesService Businesses 179 180 181 182 182 189 191 193 195 197 198 199 205 206 130 137 139 140 140 142 148 150 151 213 6 CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES Chapter Overview and Learning Objectives 6.1 Introduction 226 226 227 Contents xi 322 323 326 326 330 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Control Charts for Ã¢â¬â and R x 6.2.1 Statistical Basis of the Charts 6.2.2 Development and Use of Ã¢â¬â and x R Charts 6.2.3 Charts Based on Standard Values 6.2.4 Interpretation of Ã¢â¬â and R x Charts 6.2Read MorePrject 587 final course project7331 Words Ã |Ã 30 PageschangeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.24 b) Cultural changeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.25 IX. Resource Utilization PlanÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.25 X. Summary and ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.26 XI. ResourcesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦28 Introduction A smart Project Portfolio Manager proactively manages his portfolio. Yet most organizations lack the information to effectively manage their strategic initiativesÃ¢â¬âthe dataRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesmymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY Read MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pages.............................................................................................. 379 Using Venn-Euler Diagrams to Test for Invalidity ....................................................................... 385 The Logic of Only in Class Logic...................................................................................................... 395 Review of Major Points ...............................................................................................................Read MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 Pagesand Samson, Technology Management, First Edition Hayen, SAP R/3 Enterprise Software: An Introduction, First Edition Hill, Manufacturing Strategy: Text Cases, Third Edition Hopp, Supply Chain Science, First Edition Hopp and Spearman, Factory Physics, Third Edition Jacobs, Berry, Whybark, and Vollmann Manufacturing Planning Control for Supply Chain Management, Sixth Edition Jacobs and Chase, Operations and Supply Management: The Core, Second Edition Jacobs and Chase Operations and Supply ManagementRead MoreProject Managment Case Studies214937 Words Ã |Ã 860 PagesKerzner. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-471-75167-0 (pbk.) ISBN-10: 0-471-75167-7 (pbk.) 1. Project management-Case studies. I. Title. Printed in the United States of America Contents Preface xi 1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGIES 1 Lakes Automotive 3 Fems Healthcare, Inc. Clark Faucet Company 2 5 7 11 IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT Kombs Engineering 13 Williams Machine Tool Company 15 Wynn Computer Equipment (WCE)Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. 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Understanding management control systems and strategy Kim Langfield-Smith v vii xi 1 20 42 69 92 117 146 166 198 217 243 x CONTENTS 12. Management accounting, operations, and network relations: debating the lateral dimension Jan Mouritsen and Allan Hansen 13. Trends in budgetary control and responsibility accountingRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words Ã |Ã 820 Pages. . . . . . 224 Filling Vacant Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Attracting a Diverse Workforce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Internal and External Applicants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Contents xi Matching the Applicant to the Position . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 The Selection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Interviewing the Candidate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Background Verification . . .
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Foxs The Case for Animal Experimentation Chapter 2 and 3 and Darnovskys Revisiting Sex Selection 1. What is the challenge/problem presented in this article? DarnovskyÃ¢â¬â¢s article explores the upcoming moral challenges that are tied to the renewed interest in marketing sex selection to parents. There are a myriad of ethical issues tied to the option of deciding the sex of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s child that fall far outside the scope of the question Ã¢â¬Å"Are we playing God?Ã¢â¬ However, it is the implications of the option to decide the gender of a baby that are more profoundly disturbing. In a society where perfection in appearance and Ã¢â¬Å"brainsÃ¢â¬ is already prized above all else, it seems unlikely that wealthy parents could resist the urge to guaranteeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Challenges to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights concerning pregnancy are apparent everyday, but the issue of the strides made by disabled people as equal members of society will be further compromised by a society where a powerful elite can Ã¢â¬Å"phase outÃ¢â¬ Nature. Genetic sex-selection also furthers the commodification of children and the commercialization of reproduction. It could lead to gender stereotyping, sexism, and open up the door to more human genetic engineering that could further the agenda of eugenicists and magnify inequality in a world that already struggles with extreme cases of social injustice. The marketing of such technologies is equally unconscionable, showing pictures of smiling babies next to genetics and IVF (in-vitro fertilization) labs. Suddenly, a need is being creating where no problem existed before, namely the desirability of a Ã¢â¬Å"balancedÃ¢â¬ family. Like desires for designer clothes, plastic surgery and behavior enhancing drugs, the market for sex-selection technologies must first be founded in the creation of a problem where none existed before. This non-medical procedure makes the creation of children like something you can buy in the store and just for the profit of doctors. Fox spends a great deal of effort in his article bringing up the ethical dimensions of the problem and dismissing these arguments as the flippant rhetoric of well-intentioned, yet confused, activists. These include the idea based on evolution that animals
Terms United Irishmen- were harassed by British, support French revolution US supported Britain against the French War Brides act: Servicemen could bring their spouses from foreign lands into the U. S. (non-quota immigrants) 1980 Refugee Policy-Central Americans (Salvadorians and Guatemalans) came under this policy while others were coming in as non refugees. We will write a custom essay sample on Us Immigration History or any similar topic only for you Order Now Immigration Reform and Control Act (I. R. C. A)-does 3 things Raises the immigration ceiling for the whole world. More slots to distribute Grants amnesty to undocumented residents that could prove that they were living here since 1982 Fined people who employed undocumented workers Forced Repatriation- in 1934, Mexican and citizens of the Philippines are repatriated. GentlemenÃ¢â¬â¢s Agreement- In 1907, an agreement was established between Japan and US where Japan would stop labor emigration and the US would limit immigrant restrictions against them (such as ending segregation in schools in San Francisco). Happened after the Russo-Japanese war. Indentured Servitude: Debt bondage that was used in the colonial period in which one person would cover the travel cost into the colonies and in return they would work off the debt and upon completion would be given some land. his was the major way in which people got others to work the land for them and it was the system that was in place before slavery became popular. Assimilation- Basically, conformity into the US culture. Migrant- someone who has moved across one national frontier Emigration- wants to recreate a place where they came from i. e. New England, New York, New Mexico, New Spain, New Amsterdam Sojourners- someone who comes to America without the intention of staying here. In other words they come to make dough, but then leave. Italians and Greeks. RavensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s Law- long migration occurs into urban areas, Rural dwellers are more migratory than urban dwellers, migration is mostly due to economic reasons Transnationalism- Primarily focuses on exchanges, connections and practices across borders. It as if be Ã¢â¬Å"neither here nor thereÃ¢â¬ since a migrant lives a multi sited life where exchanges and interactions across borders are a regular part migrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ realities and activities- Ex. Immigrants from Mexico can be living in the U. S but have continuous connections with their families in Mexico. League of Nations- Internal Security Act- In 1950, this gave the president power to incarcerate persons in peacetime. It applied to citizens as well as aliens. It was passed over President TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s veto. It also required communists to register with the government. 1940 Smith Act- set penalties for advocating the overthrow of the U. S. government. Required all non-citizen adults to register with the government. Visas could be refused to those deemed a danger to public safety. This was directed at Nazi sympathizers and radicals. 986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)- Raised the immigration ceiling to 540,000 a year. It also attempted to deal with immigrants already present, granting amnesty for unauthorized immigrants who could prove they had resided in the U. S. since a certain date. It also included stiff sanctions for employers of undocumented immigrants such as charging them fines. It was not successful due to a strong labor demand and lack of enforcement. Know Nothi ng Party- Nativist group active in the mid 19th century. They were concerned with political corruption and immigrant involvement in political machines. Rather than seeking to restrict immigration, the Know Nothing Party wanted to make it more difficult for immigrants to naturalize or hold high offices. They proposed a requirement of a 21 year period for naturalization. They were also anti-Catholic. LPC- Ã¢â¬Å"likely to become a public chargeÃ¢â¬ . Clause of the Immigration Act of 1882 (transmuted in 1892). Aspect of nativism. Originally applied to persons who were obviously unable and/or unlikely to be able to support themselves. During the Great Depression it was interpreted more strictly. 1917 Immigration Act- Passed over President WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s veto. Required a literacy test for admission. This tightened restrictions on radicals. It also created the Asiatic Barred Zone (everything except the Philippines and Japan) from which immigration is barred. It reflected fears as well as the relationship of the U. S. to other nations/foreign policy. Foraker Act 1900- Under this act, Puerto Ricans were nationals, not U. S. citizens like contemporary FIlipinos. Immigration Restriction League- Formed in 1894 by a group of young Harvard graduates. It became the most influential single pressure group arguing for a fundamental change in American immigration policy. According to one of its founders, Prescott F. Hall, the question for Americans to decide was whether they wanted their country Ã¢â¬Å"to be peopled by British, German and Scandinavian stock, historically free, energetic, progressive, or by Slav, Latin, and Asiatic races [referring to Jews rather than Chinese or Japanese] historically downtrodden, atavistic and stagnantÃ¢â¬ . The league and its chief political spokesman, Henry Cabot Lodge pushed for literacy tests as the best way to improve the quality of the incoming immigrants. Agricultural Labor Relations Act- 1975 California. Established collective bargaining for farmworkers. This helped protect the rights of employees. 1921 Quota Act- limited annual immigration to 3% of foreign born of each nationality in the US in the year 1910. It imposed an annual ceiling of 350,000 quota admissions: 55% from Northern and Western Europe, 45% from other countries (nearly all Southern and Eastern European). It introduced new collective measures to allow non-quota or unlimited admissions of immediate relatives of US citizens and immigrants from the Western Hemisphere. 924 Johnson Reed Act (Second Quota Act) Ã¢â¬â Limited immigration further, to 2% of the number of each nationality group who lived in the US in 1890. It lowered the total annual ceiling of quota immigrants to 165,000, increased the share of Northern and Western European potential immigrants to 86% (142,000), and decreased the share from Southern and Eastern Europe to 11% (18,000). It barred Asian immigration entirely (effective for Japanese and for forei gn born wives and children of US citizens of Chinese ancestry). Filipinos could still come outside the quota system because they were American Ã¢â¬Å"nationalsÃ¢â¬ . 1934 Philippines Independence Act- Provided for PhilippineÃ¢â¬â¢s independence on July 4, 1946. Filipinos lost their status as US nationals and were restricted to a token quota of 50 per year. 1942 Executive Order 9066- Issued by President Franklin Roosevelt. It authorized the US army to imprison 120,000 Japanese Americans, two-thirds of them US citizens and the rest ineligible for citizenship on racial grounds. 1942-64 Bracero Program- for Mexican laborers outside usual immigration controls. It was due to a labor shortage during WWII. Under the program, the US guaranteed that Mexican workers would receive specified minimum wages and certain living and working conditions, although many complaints were filed against employers who did not meet those standards. The WWII program had about 200,000 braceros in the US. Its peak year was 1959 when 450,000 braceros entered. It was an important landmark in the history of Latin American migration to the US. The notion was that Mexicans would be temporary workers or guest workers. While many returned home, many others became permanent residents. 1952 McCarran-Walter Act- passed over President TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s veto, reaffirming the national origins quota system and setting the total annual immigration limit to one-sixth of one percent of the population of the continental US in 1920. It exempted spouses and children of US citizens and people born in the Western Hemisphere from quotas. It also created a system of preferences within the quotas for persons with needed occupations. It ended racial limits to immigration and naturalization, giving Japan a token quota of 100. 954 Operation Ã¢â¬Å"WetbackÃ¢â¬ - It removed one million Mexican immigrants from the Southwest amid numerous civil rights violations. It was staged by the INS, who reported that it had deported or expelled 3. 8 million Mexicans. 1965 Hart-Cellar act- abolished the national origins quota system. It created an Eastern Hemisphere system of equal visa limits per country of 20,000 annually. It placed the first limits on Western Hemisphere immigration. The hold total limited admissions to 290,000 per year: 170,000 from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere. It also established an admission class not subject to limitation. It revised the occupation-first, family-reunion-second preference system to put family reunion first and occupations second. AIPAC- American Israel Public Affairs Committee, formed in 1963. This was an effective pro-Israel lobby. They established a close relationship with both parties in the US. United Irish- Mainly middle class Protestants. They wanted an end to British rule/aristocracy. They were strong believers in the French Revolution. Repatriation- sending someone back to their country of origin. The forced repatriation of Mexicans and Filipinos occurred in 1934. Angel Island- An island located in the San Francisco Bay. It was used as an immigration station from 1910-1940. Due to the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, many Chinese were interrogated and detained on the island, some for years. Triangle Shirt-Waist Factory- This was a shop belonging to Eastern European Jews in New York City. A fire occurred in 1911, in which 146 workers, almost all young women, were burned to death or died leaping from high windows. This reflected the subpar conditions of many factories. It helped lead to the relatively early organization of garment workers in unions. AFL/CIO- American Federation of Labor. It was a union group founded in 1886. Mostly Irish men. Organized almost exclusively among skilled workers. In 1955 the AFL merged with Congress of Industrial Organizations to form the AFL-CIO. Puerto Rico + Gonzales Case-Isabel Gonzales traveled to New York from Puerto Rico where she was detained as an alien immigrant. January of 1904, the court ruled that under immigration law Gonzales was not a alien therefore could not be denied entry. The court however declined to state if she was a U. S. citizen. The importance of this case is the question if habitants of new island territories of the U. S. were considered citizens. Their citizenship remained ambiguous and Puerto Rican became known as Ã¢â¬Å"non citizenÃ¢â¬ nationals Immigration Act 1882-LPC Clause- Page Law- 1875, barred entry to Chinese and Japanese prostitutes, felons, and contract laborers. Spanish American War (1898)- Puerto Rico was annexed by the US in the aftermath of the war. Cuba was also liberated from Spain along with Philippines. Little Italy Chinatown Federal Immigration Law 1891- statute that showed concern for both the physical and mental condition of prospective immigrants. It barred the immigration of Ã¢â¬Å"all idiots, insane persons, paupers or persons likely to become a public charge, persons suffering from a loathsome or contagious disease, persons who have been convicted of a felony or other infamous crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude, and polygamistsÃ¢â¬ . Mexican Immigration Industrialization/ Urbanization- early 1800s-early 1900s. These were great changes in this century. People moved from the country to the city. Nativism- anti-immigrant activity. It occurred in 3 phases: anti-Catholic [1830s-1850s], anti-Asian[1870s-mid 1900s], and anti-all immigrants[1880s-? ]. Nativist attitudes have always been present. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and Immigration Act of 1924 are examples of nativist influence on immigration policy. Ethnicity vs. Race- League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)- Mexican American civil rights organization. Founded in the 1920s. Thind vs US- U. S. Supreme Court case in which the decision finding was that no person of East Indian origin could become a naturalized American. (1923) British Passenger Acts- attempted to deflect immigration from the British Isles to Canada rather than the US by making it much more expensive to travel to the latter. Canada bound ships were more easily accessible and convenient for Irish immigrants. Great Famine 1846-a period of starvation and disease from 1845-1852. Over 1 million people died and a drastic number migrated elsewhere. the famine created a diaspora as IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s population decreased by as much as 25%. the cause of the famine was a potato disease known as potato blight. Manifest Destiny 1839- idea that the US should expand its influence. This ideology resulted in more aggressive land grabbing and in the homestead act that gave people land for free as long as they improved the land. n other parts of the world, it led to colonization of the philippines via the Spanish-American War and to the inclusion of Texas via the Mexican American War. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- 1848 treaty at the end of the Mexican-American War that made Mexico pay the US as well as giving up the southwest states (California, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado). the treaty had included a right t o give Mexicans American Citizenship if they were within the lost territories but that was never enacted. Foreign Miners Tax 1850- This was a tax on gold that forced Chinese to pay 3 dollars a month when they were only making approximately six. If an immigrant couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay the tax, the tax collectors were allowed to take possessions equalling the amount owed, however most tax collectors took advantage of the fact that foreigners did not speak english well, and over taxed them. Texas Independence 1836- Cultural Pluralism- the preservation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s culture even within another society. This term applies to Chinatown and Little Italy. Pueblo Revolt 1680- Century of Migration- 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s-1920Ã¢â¬â¢s we are a nation of immigrants. During this time over 50 million immigrants came to the US leaving only 1. 7% of the population of Native people. i enrolled in this class about immigration nd learned about coming to the us nation the chinese were hated, the Italians were debated while the Irish came early and became integrated the irish were in politics and became racist dicks the chinese worked for small feeÃ¢â¬â¢s which is why the white men wanted them to flee while italians came, in order to play the game, but living in the US was not their aim. thats my song on immigration. Essays 4. Write an essay discussing the significance of nativism in US history. What were the forces giving rise to nativism at different moments in history and how did nativism affect immigrants and American society and politics more generally? Nativist attitudes have always been present in American society. Nativism, or anti-immigrant activity influenced the treatment of immigrants as well as legislation. It occurred in 3 phases: anti-Catholic [1830s-1850s], anti-Asian [1870s-mid 1900s], and anti-all immigrants [1880s-mid 1900s]. Generally nativism has been more prevalent during times when Americans have been divided and lacking confidence in the future. Influxes of immigrants have contributed it nativism as well. Nativism also rose during war when immigrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ loyalty was questioned. nti-CatholicÃ¢â¬â Relatively large numbers of Irish and German Catholic immigrants, many of them desperately poor, began to arrive in the late 1820s and early 1830s. The costs of maintaining the poor were mounting. With growing Irish and German Catholic immigration, Catholics and Catholicism were seen as an internal threat of republican principles and of the republic itself. In eastern cities this sentiment often turned violent. Much of this violence was directed at convents and churches. 1840s and 50s the Know Nothing Party emerged, calling for a change in naturalization laws. They proposed a 21 year period for naturalization and wanted to bar immigrants from holding any but minor local offices. Nativism grew in the pre-Civil War years because there was uncertainty about the future of the nation. Some felt Catholics contributed to crime and radicalism. During the Depression there was competition for labor. anti-AsianÃ¢â¬â 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act suspended the immigration of laborers. This was to promote the interests of white workingmen in California and elsewhere in the West who experienced competition with Chinese laborers. Racial prejudice was also a large factor. Japan and the GentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢s Agreement, Executive Order during WWII. anti-all immigrantsÃ¢â¬âfrom the end of the 19th century into the beginning of the 20th there was a large immigrant population. an 1891 statute barred the immigration of Ã¢â¬Å"all idiots, insane persons, paupers, or persons likely to become a public charge, persons suffering from a loathsome or contagious disease, persons who have been convicted of a felony or other infamous crime or misdemeanor involving moral turpitude or polygamistsÃ¢â¬ . Many Americans at that time felt their way of life was threatened by the Ã¢â¬Å"immigrant invasionÃ¢â¬ . 1924 Quota prop 187 stopped funding unregistered citizens, however it was ruled unconstitutional. people were afraid that immigrants were coming for a Ã¢â¬Å"free rideÃ¢â¬ , but really most immigrants were coming for jobs. Was a key legislative piece in the development of similar propositions in other states that have since barred access to immigrants. recession and depression drove nativist movements. Nativism was affected by immigrants in many ways. The main reason i can think of is fiscal reasons. Many immigrants came to the US and took jobs away from those already established. Most immigrants were also willing to work for cheaper wages which would create an anti-immigrant view. Irish were willing to do the hard Ã¢â¬Å"dirtyÃ¢â¬ work for cheap wages. Chinese were willing to do jobs for wages less than the people already doing there jobs. This along with other issues like lack of assimilation. People who immigrated and chose not to assimilate excluded themselves from the US community. Essay #1 Racialization is the act of classifying a group of people as a race when they were not previously viewed this way. These groups include, but are not limited to Jews, Chinese, Irish, Germans, Scandanavians, more specifically, Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes, Italians, Greeks, Armenians, Poles, and Hungarians. The way i see it, instead of classifying these groups as Asian, European, or Middle Eastern, they are viewed on a much more specific level, targeting the exact area they originated from. Now that there is a brief background on what racialization is, we will look at specific examples of where racialization was seen. The first place racialization was evident was in labor. To begin, the Irish were classified as hard working immigrants. The Irish seemed to always be stuck with the monotonous jobs such as digging trenches, or building sky scrapers. They were considered hard working people who would work from sun up to sun down and give 100%. In the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s the Irish dominated the unskilled labor section. Another racialized group was the Chinese people. Chinese people came to the Western US and brought skilled and unskilled labor. The Chinese were willing to work for low wages and were able to live on a less amount of necessities than their rival workers. The next place where racialization was blatantly evident was in communities. To begin with, Italians came to the US and remained in tightly knit Italian communities, choosing not to assimilate. Jews also came and although they did not necessarily create their own communities, their presence was evident in whatever community they lived in, and instead of being viewed as white, middle eastern, or whatever general class they may have fallen into, they were seen specifically as Jews. Chinese influence also had a huge role in the creation of Chinatown on the west coast in San Francisco. Chinatown was formed in 1850 and had a very tight community, however, it was also a tourist attraction. Many groups went from a general classification to a specific region they were known for coming from. The word that i hate to use but must is stereotypical. Racialization was a stereotype placed on specific races and it created almost an impermeable barrier to the rest of the nation once that stereotype had been placed upon a race. Irish were expected to be involved in politics, or unskilled labor. Chinese were expected to live in Chinese communities and work at a dry cleaning shop or in the mines, searching for old. Racialization was almost an anti-assimilation view as it seemed to prohibit naturalization in the US. It classified races to specific groups, and in some cases, if these groups became too powerful, the government would strike them down as seen in the Chinese Exclusion Act. Racialization played a huge role in keeping records of immigrants, as well as, creating immigratio n policies meant to target certain immigrant groups. NOTE: This essay can be filled with a ton more evidence of basically any act or law passed to discriminate a race. The fact that races were viewed as such singular groups is what made them easy to prey upon. One thing i didnÃ¢â¬â¢t bring up was race in religion which, if that is your cup of tea, you might wanna elaborate on. Essay #2 The main forces behind immigration policy have always been around nativist interest i. e. Self interests of the American people. If we look a political party and two policies then dissect them, we can see the policies demonstrate self interest by the US. Bracero Program, operation wetback, know nothing party Bracero program-for Mexican laborers outside usual immigration controls. It was due to a labor shortage during WWII. US guaranteed that Mexican workers would receive specified minimum wages and certain living and working conditions, although many complaints were filed against employers who did not meet those standards. The WWII program had about 200,000 braceros in the US. Its peak year was 1959 when 450,000 braceros entered. It was an important landmark in the history of Latin American migration to the US. The notion was that Mexicans would be temporary workers or guest workers. While many returned home, many others became permanent residents. They welcomed the labor only because they could not create enough goods to feed the war machine so they opened up to mexico so that they could attain unskilled workers that could work in agriculture and factories to help the war while simply treating them as if they were going to be sojourners and nothing else. It was an economic move for them initially since the increased workers would bring back production levels and money. Operation Wetback- a massive immigration operation that was meant to send back a large quantity of immigrant workers mostly Mexican. By the end of it, over 3. million were sent back to their country of origin. This was a massive attempt to remove the mexican laborers that had settled starting in 1946. This occurred as more and more soldiers returned from the war and job displacement began to occur. At this point, with the steady flow of migration into the states, it no longer suited them to continue to extend the Bracero program. It can be traced back to a nativ ist notion that the braceros were taking jobs away and with substantial numbers coming in that they created a threat to society. Know nothing Party- Nativist group active in the mid 19th century. They were concerned with political corruption and immigrant involvement in political machines. Rather than seeking to restrict immigration, the Know Nothing Party wanted to make it more difficult for immigrants to naturalize or hold high offices. They proposed a requirement of a 21 year period for naturalization. They were also anti-Catholic. This was largely meant to hold the Irish from Ã¢â¬Å"corruptingÃ¢â¬ the US way of life. The people disliked the Irish for being catholic since they believed they would always be loyal to the pope and on top of this the Irish would do any job which some people would not even do. How to cite Us Immigration History, Papers
Question: Explanation of pathophysiology and pharmacology ? Answer : Introduction Cerebrovascular accident refers to the medical term that is used for stroke. Stroke occurs due to the poor blood flow in the brain, which causes the cell death (Berkhemer et al. 2015). Stroke is of two types that are ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke occurs due to the reduced blood flow. On the other hand, the hemorrhagic stroke occurs due to the bleeding. However, cerebrovascular accident or stroke has various signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms show the inability of the brain. In the assignment, the pathophysiology and pharmacology are discussed. Cerebrovascular accidents have various signs and symptoms that are discussed. The next section discusses about the rationale of the cerebrovascular accident. Pathophysiology of cerebrovascular accident: eorge and Steinberg (2015) mentioned that the main reason of ischemic stroke can be blood clot. This occurs when the artery affected or damaged that is called thrombosis. The arterial wall became blocked that leads to damage. Therefore, the blood vessel network became hampered. The single artery damage can cause the hampered blood circulation network. On the other hand, Bivard et al. (2014) stated that the arteries became harden that is known as the artherosclerosis. The damage of the arteries and the natural variation in collateral network helps to prevent collateral system from the compensating completely. This can result the loss of perfusion, blood supply to the brain. Arteriovenous malformation can cause of the abnormal tangles of the blood vessels. In such condition, the blood flow occurs from the veins to the arteries. Therefore, the flow of blood blocked and damage of the brain tissues occur. In case of haemorrhagic stroke, the bleeding occurs due to the head trauma. The aneurysm ruptures that causes the bleeding. The bleeding occurs in between the innermost meninges, arachnoid mater and pia mater. Vasopasm that is the construction of arteries can help to reduce the bleeding, which is hampered. The brain tissues fail to respond as the blood pressures increases highly. Kim, Kawabori and Yenari (2014) mentioned that stroke mainly happens due to the hypertension. Brain tumors and blood clotting disorder can cause the stroke in the patient. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the effects of the hypertension and other causes of stroke. Pharmacology of cerebrovascular accident: The pharmacologic therapy includes stroke specific treatment and the stroke prevention. However, Foushee et al. (2014) mentioned that the type of pharmacology depends on the type of stroke that is ischemic or haemorrhagic. In case of the ischemic stroke, the pharmacotherapeutic treatment includes the plasminogen activator and antiplatelet agents. On the other hand, the hemorrhagic stroke includes the control of blood pressure and the intracranial pressure. To treat the ischemic stroke, the IV tPA agents are used that the FDA approves. The tPA is very effective to control the ischemic stroke. Oppelt et al. (2014) mentioned that the patient who is affected by the ischemic stroke, needs to be treated within 3 hours of the attack. This will help to reduce the effect the stroke attack. In case of hemorrhagic stroke, surgery may be needed if the condition of the patient is serious. In case of non-surgical condition, the medication of IV vitamin K is necessary. The nurse should provide aspi rin as earlier as possible to prevent the effects of stoke. In some cases, plasminogen activator is used as an injection, which is administered in the arm of the patient. Signs and symptoms Stroke has various signs and symptoms that include problem in movement. The patient may feel problem to move. Sometimes the patient may feel problem on one side of the body that is problem in movement. Hayek et al. (2014) stated that the patient feels problem in speaking. Sometimes the loss of vision occurs. The patient can feel like that the world is spinning. The signs and symptoms of the patient may occur soon after the stroke. Zeng et al. (2016) mentioned that when the symptoms of the stroke stay for more than 1 to 2 hours, it is called as the transient ischemic attack. On the other hand, Palmerini et al. (2015) opined that in case of hemorrhagic stroke, the patient may have severe headache. The symptoms of stroke can last for the long time. In case of long-term effect, the patient may suffer from pneumonia and loss of bladder control. The risk factors of stroke are high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, obesity, atrial fibrillation. Gruber, Lee and Moreno-Walton (2016) added that another risk factors of the stroke are the malpractice of tobacco smoking, previous TIA and diabetes mellitus. In case of ischemic stroke, the blood vessels ma ruptured, which can cause the bleeding. As a result, stroke occurs in the patient. When stroke occurs, the patient may faint and sweating may occur. In the case study, the daughter of Gretas friend is suffering from cerebrovascular accident. George and Steinberg (2015) stated that the bleeding causes the hemorrhagic stroke. It can happen due to the space in between the membrane space in the brain. The brain aneurysm can ruptured, which may result the stroke. The patient felt onset face weakness, abnormal speech and problem in arm drift. When these three symptoms are less, it means that the risk of stroke is decreasing. The patient faces the hemiplegia with the muscle weakness of face. In addition, the patient losses the vibration sensitivity and the symptoms of excessive reflexes occurs. in the case scenario, one side of the body of the patient is affected and the patient cannot move its head to one side as well as the body. The patient faced the apraxia, memory deficits, dysarthria, hemineglect and lack of eyesight. Hemineglect refers to the involvement of the parietal lobe. The patient lost consciousness and vomiting as the int racranial pressure increased. From the signs and symptoms, the condition of the patient is seen, which can be fatal for the patient. Rationale In case of stroke, the nurse can provide aspirin so that the ischemic stroke can be prevented. Aspirin can provide relief to the patient. In the emergency case, the injection may be administered to avoid the blockage. In some cases, surgery may be needed. In case of hemorrhagic stroke, the nurse needs to provide medication to reduce the high blood pressure. In such circumstances, the brain surgery can occur to reduce the pressure created in the brain. The surgery can repair the blood vessels of the brain, which is ruptured. The key responsibilities of nurse in case of stroke to administer the medication include the followings: Nursing responsibilities Rationale Check the blood pressure Before and after applying the medication, the blood pressure of the patient needs to be checked. The application of aspirin can reduce the high blood pressure and increase the blood flow in brain. Check the proper administration of medication including drugs and injections Before applying the aspirin or other drugs and tPA injection, the nurse needs to recheck. The drugs may have adverse effects on the patient and as a result, the condition may be worse from the previous time. Check the symptoms of the patient The medication and injection should be provided after detecting the signs and symptoms of the stroke. As stroke is of two types therefore, the medication system is different for both the stroke. Check the route and dosage of the medication administration Before administer the drug, the nurse needs to check the dosage and route. However, Kim, Kawabori and Yenari (2014) mentioned that the dosage should be applied in a safe level. Overdose of the medication can be fatal for the patient. Take the consent of the patient and family members For the ethical consideration, the nurse needs to take the concern of the family members and patient (if possible). Check the medication of the patient that is taken by the patient earlier The nurse needs to check the medical history of the patient that will help to know the reason of the stroke. Moreover, the dosage of the past medical history should be checked. The medicines can increase the blood pressure of the patient. As a result, the function of brain tissues can be affected. Observe the patient after medication As the medication is done to reduce the effect of stroke, the nurse needs to monitor the patient that will help to develop the patients health. Necessity of surgery After providing the medication, observation is necessary to check the condition of the patient. if the condition does not develop, the patient may need of surgery that will help to reduce the negative effect cerebrovascular accident or stroke. Table 1: Rationale of cerebrovascular accident Conclusion Based on the above discussion, it can be said that stroke is fatal and it can make the patient bed ridden for lifetime. The signs and symptoms of strokes need to be detected in the early stage of the stroke. If the stroke can be determined in the early stage then the chance of mortality and paralysis reduces. Moreover, the type of stroke is necessary to identify. The pharmacological treatment depends on the type of stroke. For this purpose, various tests need to be done. The long-term effect of stroke can affect the patient badly so it is necessary to reduce. References Berkhemer, O.A., Fransen, P.S., Beumer, D., Van Den Berg, L.A., Lingsma, H.F., Yoo, A.J., Schonewille, W.J., Vos, J.A., Nederkoorn, P.J., Wermer, M.J. and van Walderveen, M.A., 2015. A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke.N Engl J Med,2015(372), pp.11-20. Bivard, A., Levi, C., Krishnamurthy, V., Hislop-Jambrich, J., Salazar, P., Jackson, B., Davis, S. and Parsons, M., 2014. Defining acute ischemic stroke tissue pathophysiology with whole brain CT perfusion.Journal of Neuroradiology,41(5), pp.307-315. Foushee, J.A., Goodbar, N.H., Kelly, J.L. and Clarke, S.L., 2014. Cerebrovascular accident in a high-risk patient during the early initiation phase with canagliflozin.Annals of Pharmacotherapy,48(8), pp.1066-1069. George, P.M. and Steinberg, G.K., 2015. Novel stroke therapeutics: unraveling stroke pathophysiology and its impact on clinical treatments.Neuron,87(2), pp.297-309. Gruber, M., Lee, B.I. and Moreno-Walton, L., 2016. The Total Pentad: a Case Report of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Presenting as an Acute Cerebrovascular Accident.Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences,3(3). Hayek, S., Zeineh, N., Lasorda, D. and Hajjali, R., 2014. Obesity and Prognosis in Patients with Acute Cerebrovascular Accident.Circulation,130(Suppl 2), pp.A17049-A17049. Kim, J.Y., Kawabori, M. and Yenari, M.A., 2014. Innate inflammatory responses in stroke: mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.Current medicinal chemistry,21(18), pp.2076-2097. Oppelt, M., Juehring, D., Sorgenfrey, G., Harvey, P.J. and Larkin-Thier, S.M., 2014. A case study utilizing spinal manipulation and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization care to enhance function of a post cerebrovascular accident patient.Journal of bodywork and movement therapies,18(1), pp.17-22. Palmerini, T., Benedetto, U., Bacchi-Reggiani, L., Della Riva, D., Biondi-Zoccai, G., Feres, F., Abizaid, A., Hong, M.K., Kim, B.K., Jang, Y. and Kim, H.S., 2015. Mortality in patients treated with extended duration dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation: a pairwise and Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomised trials.The Lancet,385(9985), pp.2371-2382. Zeng, L.F., Liang, W.X., Liu, J.C., Chen, X.Y., Du, W.Y., Li, Z.P., Wang, Q., Cao, Y., Wang, L., Meng, C.R. and Wang, K.Z., 2016. Is adjunctive treatment with medication of liver-soothing-oriented method beneficial for depression after cerebrovascular accident?: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.Medicine,95(44), p.e5208.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about theWorkplace Debriefing and Support Processes. Answer: Introduction Group debriefing normally involves teams that work through numerous incidents at the workplace. On the other hand, Critical Incident Stress Debriefing refers to a crisis intervention process that is composed of seven phases which are normally used or applied in the organization after an event that is deemed to be significantly traumatic. Owing to the fact that the two new staff members of the Bright Future Group organization had already undergone the demobilization and defusing processes, it is important for the Mitchell Debriefing Model to be used. In order to ensure that Bright Future Group organization has the relevant procedures that will ensure that no bad incidences recur in the organization, appropriate and viable interventions will have to be put in place (Baker, 2017). The three debriefing sessions that will be put in place through the use of the Mitchell Debriefing Model are here below 1st debrief report Session Report Date 25TH SEPTEMBER 2017 Location TEAM LEADERS OFFICE Facilitator TEAM LEADER Attendees: TEAM LEADER TWO VOLUNTEERS COUNSELLOR Absent: TIM Session Goals: -The session was aimed at getting a guideline for the rest of the sessions -Minimize stress levels among the two volunteers who had been negatively affected by the incident. -Make them aware of how they should deal with such actions in future and enable them effectively handle stress. Debriefing Stages 1.Introduction The members present introduced themselves and eventually the facilitator described how the whole process shall be. The guidelines for the whole process and sessions were made and members were encouraged to get involved in the process freely (Higgins et al, 2017). However, for safety of all members, sessions were kept confidential and it was agreed that in the next meeting, the clients who witnessed the incident in which the two volunteers were racially abused by Tim will be called to shed some light on how it occurred (Merry et al, 2015). 2. Facts This session was aimed having participants especially the clients to provide vital information or facts regarding how the incident happened. Each of them was given a chance of providing a short description of what happened (Burns, 2016). The clients were also discouraged against discussing their personal reactions during the session 3. Phase 3: Thoughts-Staff members were asked regarding what they thought about the incident that happened. 4. Phase 4-Reactions-the affected victims who were the two volunteers were asked about the incident. 5. Phase 5: Symptoms-Victims were asked regarding the impacts of the incident on their personal and professional lives as well as on their context. 6. Phase 6: Teaching-After the identification of the impacts, corrective measures were taken in order to reduce such effects. 7-Phase 7: Entry: During the final stage, the two volunteers submitted their final statements and a summary of all the vital issues which were discussed during the sessions were made. Topics Covered Stress management, Conflict Resolution, and cultural and Individual differences. Referral Recommendations -Further sessions to be carried out in organizations regarding stress management. -Make all people aware on the best way of conflict resolution. -A counselor was at hand just in case the two volunteers required further counseling. They were also advised to seek for counseling from outside counselors if need be. Session Reflection-It is important for all and sundry to positively interact regardless of their cultural, ethical, religious, and cultural backgrounds since we are all one people. People should never be discriminated or be punished based on the above aspect and there is need that effective conflict management mechanisms are implemented in organizations across the world (Baker, 2017). 2nd Debrief Report Session Report Date 26TH SEPTEMBER 2017 Location TEAM LEADERS OFFICE Facilitator TEAM LEADER Attendees: TEAM LEADER TWO VOLUNTEERS COUNSELLOR Absent: TIM Session Goals: -The session was aimed at getting a guideline for the rest of the sessions -Inform the volunteers against actions to be taken against the culprit -Discuss on how the two will be compensated by the organization. Debriefing Stages 1.Introduction The members present introduced themselves as usual and the agenda for the day put forth (Merry et al, 2015). 2. Facts A review of what transpired in the previous session was made and a discussion on the actions to be taken against the culprit was made (Burns, 2016). 3. Phase 3: Thoughts-Staff members were to give their contributions on the actions to be taken against the culprit. 4. Phase 4-Reactions-Members reacted on the numerous disciplinary measures that had been put forth by members. 5. Phase 5: Symptoms-Victims were asked to suggest the final way of punishing the culprit. 6. Phase 6: Teaching-After the identification of appropriate disciplinary measures, all members agreed that in future, more harsh disciplinary actions will be meted on offenders. 7-Phase 7: Entry: During the final stage, the two volunteers thanked the facilitator for the action to be taken. Topics Covered Disciplinary measures and conflict resolution. Referral Recommendations -People who caused more grievous bodily harm to others to be sacked or be imprisoned instantly. -More harsh disciplinary actions to be meted against any offenders in the organizations. - Counselor was at hand just in case the two volunteers required further counseling. They were also advised to seek for counseling from outside counselors if need be. Session Reflection-People in the organization should learn to live with each other in peace and harmony (Baker, 2017). Third Debrief Report Session Report Date 26TH SEPTEMBER 2017 Location TEAM LEADERS OFFICE Facilitator TEAM LEADER Attendees: TEAM LEADER TWO VOLUNTEERS COUNSELLOR Absent: TIM Session Goals: -The session was aimed at getting a guideline for the rest of the sessions -Inform the volunteers against actions to be taken against the culprit -Discuss on how the two will be compensated by the organization. Debriefing Stages 1.Introduction The members present introduced themselves and a discussion on how the culprit would be arrested put forward (Merry et al, 2015). 2. Facts All people present discussed ways of ensuring that the offender Tim was brought forward and charged (Burns, 2016). 3. Phase 3: Thoughts-All people present held the view that Tim should be looked for and charged according to the rule of law. 4. Phase 4-Reactions-Members were very bitter about Tim and they swore that he should never be allowed back in the organization. 5. Phase 5: Symptoms-It was apparent that the two volunteers were happy of the decision that had been taken by management. 6. Phase 6: Teaching-All people were willing to give evidence in ensuing that Tim was charged against the incident. 7-Phase 7: Entry: During the final stage, the two volunteers thanked the facilitator for the action to be taken against the people who offended them. Topics Covered Disciplinary measures and conflict resolution. Referral Recommendations -People who caused more grievous bodily harm to others to be sacked or be imprisoned instantly. -More harsh disciplinary actions to be meted against any offenders in the organizations. - Counselor was at hand just in case the two volunteers required further counseling. They were also advised to seek for counseling from outside counselors if need be. Session Reflection-People in the organization should learn to live with each other in peace and harmony (Baker, 2017). References Baker, P. A. (2017). Attending to debriefing as post-incident support of care staff in intellectual disability challenging behaviour services: An exploratory study. International Journal of Positive Behavioural Support, 7(1), 38-44. Burns, B. (2016). Caring for colleagues through debriefing. Kai Tiaki Nursing New Zealand, 22, 12-42. Coughlan, B., Powell, D., Higgins, M. F. (2017). The Second Victim: a Review. European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. Perry, W., Civil, I., Mitchell, S., Shuker, C., Merry, A. (2015). Reducing perioperative harm in New Zealand: the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist, briefings and debriefings, and venous thrombembolism prophylaxis.